The History of Leisure and Recreation

When you stop to think about it, humankind has always enjoyed some type of leisure and recreation, so the history of leisure and recreation goes back a very long way. The Romans had the Coliseum, where they watched chariot races and other entertainment. The Greeks had amphitheaters where they viewed drama and comedy, and of course they invented the Olympics, one of the greatest entertainment sport spectacles on earth. The list goes on. Even the Bible discusses singing, dancing, music, and other forms of acceptable recreation, so even the most ancient civilizations enjoyed entertainment and recreation of some sort.

The Middle Ages

Life for most people in the Middle Ages was dark and difficult. More emphasis was put on work, and there was little time for leisure. However, jousting tournaments, hunting tournaments, and the earliest forms of chess, checkers, and other games developed during this time. The people worked hard, the Church forbade many forms of entertainment, but there were still leisure pastimes to help develop the growing history of leisure and recreation.

The Industrial Revolution

This history of leisure and recreation goes far back in time, but leisure and recreation really took off when the Industrial Revolution hit Great Britain in the 1700s. The Industrial Revolution revolutionized work in the modern world, and helped create the modern factory environment. Machines mechanized the manufacture of fabric and fibers, and this ultimately led to more leisure time for the workers. They worked long hours in the factories, but they also had time off, and most employers gave at least some holidays off. Thus, people who had labored from dawn to dusk on farms in rural England, moved to the big city, got jobs in factories, and had leisure time away from their jobs. The Industrial Revolution helped create the notion of leisure time, and it helped create a different view of work and leisure.

The 20th Century

If the Industrial Revolution helped create the history of leisure and recreation, the 20th century helped cement it. Workers demanded shorter working hours, paid vacations and holidays, and weekends off, leading to even more leisure time for the world’s workforce. Today, work and leisure are still strictly separated, but leisure time and recreation are some of the most important aspect of modern life, showing how the history of leisure and recreation has altered throughout time, and become increasingly popular as people gain more freedom from work and toil.

Tribal Warfare

It’s interesting to note that the wide separation between work and leisure in our modern society is something that wasn’t necessary in early, tribal cultures. Early man (and woman), worked when it was necessary to find food or to create items they needed to live, but they did not work continually, they interspersed work with pleasure or leisure, something our society not longer enjoys. For example, in Native American societies, boys “played” at war and warfare, but this play taught them how to use a bow and arrow, useful for hunting as well as defending the tribe. Work became play, while today, the two terms are decidedly distinct.

How to Unsubscribe From Your Hosting Service

Even the best and largest hosting companies can sometimes provide you with such bad service that you may want to cancel or unsubscribe your hosting service. But how to go about it and, and what are the consequences for your website?

Remember that no matter who your web hosting company is, things can, and regularly do, go wrong. This is just business as usual, but a competent hosting company should fix any problems with minimum delay and keep you informed about any problems and the solutions that have been applied.

Understand why things might have gone wrong

Before you unsubscribe from your current hosting service, it is important to understand the reason why things have gone wrong. You need to know the real reasons for the troubles to prevent the same situation from coming again with another host. Chancing your hosting provider can be a real hassle and you can save a lot of time by really thinking about how to match your needs with the services the hosting provider offers. These are example of the problems you may face:

– Recurring service outages: The hosting service is having persistent technical problems with your website, or the website has repeated and lengthy periods of being off-line. If your website does not use any special features of technologies that may cause the problem, then your hosting company appears not to be able to provide technically competent service. If this is the case, you can try to resolve the problem by talking to their technical support. If the problem persists, it might be time to consider unsubscribing from your host and finding a better one.

– Your website is over-using its allocated resources: The most usual kind of hosting account is called a shared hosting account. It means that there are hundreds or thousands of websites hosted on the same physical server, and each website competes with the shared CPU, memory and bandwidth resources. This is true even for the "unlimited" accounts currently offered – in reality they are not unlimited at all, but only appear so.

If you website is hosted on a low-end hosting plan, and uses a lot of resources, you may experience slow performance or service outages. You may also be in breach of your Terms of Service agreement with your web host. Consider upgrading your plan to a more suitable one, or if your web host does not offer high-end plans, you may have to unsubscribe and find a more suitable host.

– Your web host provides lousy service: Lousy service is something you can do nothing about. Do not make a judgment based on one technician's response, rather try again with another service agent. The first one just might have just had a bad day. On the other hand, if your web host is on the budget end of scale, they may not spend enough money to provide decent service and to maintain good infrastructure. Remember that in web hosting you get what you pay for. If bad service persists, its time to vote with your feet and find a better hosting service for your website.

How to get out of your web hosting agreement

Every web hosting company has different policy in regards to termination of service. Most companies offer a better price per month for a longer commitment with the company. In other words, if you wanted to buy and pay for your hosting on monthly basis, you might pay $ 4.95 per month. However, if you committed to a year (and paid it in advance), you would pay $ 3.95 per month. Over the course of the year you would save $ 12.00.

Attached to these conditions, each company offers a money-back period that varies in length from hosting company to hosting company. The money-back guarantee periods range from 30 days in the short end to "any time" within the subscription period. Typically you can expect to have a money-back period from 30 to 60 days.

If you want to cancel your subscription after the money-back period has ended, you might be out of luck. According to the terms of the agreement, you have no recourse of action and your commitment stands until the end of the subscription period. If you want to cancel your hosting because the hosting company is in fault without any doubt, you might be able to negotiate a refund, but usually you are wasting your time. It is time to cut your losses and move on to a better host.

How to avoid problems with your web host

Even before committing to your web host in the first place, consider these steps to avoid any problems in the future:

– Only commit to shortest possible period at a time. Most hosting companies offer monthly commitment and billing periods. If they do not, choose the shortest period possible. It will cost you a little bit more per month, it gives you the flexibility to change your hosting company at any time without causing you a larger loss than having committed to a super-long agreement.

– Never, EVER get your domain name from the hosting company. If you run into trouble with them, they may use the domain name as leverage to keep you in control. They may not transfer your domain name to a new registrar, or even refuse to change the DNS information of the domain to point to your new host. No domain name, no website.

– Always keep an up-to-date backup of your entire website on your own computer. Do not trust the web hosting company to do that for you. Most Terms of Service agreements specifically protect the hosting company against data loss in case the server crashes. Most hosting companies do their very best to keep data safe, but they have no obligation to keep the back ups indefinitely, or even to hand the data over to you in case of disagreement.

Race, Ethnicity, and Participation in Leisure Activities

In "Gender and Leisure" by Susan Shaw and "Ethnicity, Race, and Leisure" by James H. Gramann and Maria T. Allison, the authors describe major ways in which race, ethnicity, and gender influence access and participation in recreation and leisure .

While distinctions of gender are fairly clear in examining the differences between males and females, despite the emergence of a transgendered community, a key difficulty in assessing the impact of race and ethnicity is the way these are defined. That's because of a growing multicultural society in the US, Europe, the UK and Canada, which are blurring traditional and ethnic distinctions. But, putting those difficulties aside, this article first discusses the influence of gender and then of race and ethnicity.

As Shaw points out, there are three main ways in which gender has influenced leisure – in terms of activity participation, the gendered nature of leisure constitutions, and through gendered outcomes of leisure. The activity approach has shown that a number of activities are stereotyped according to gender, and that there have been differences in "opportunities, experiences, and a time for leisure." For example, as can be readily observed by anyone who goes to a sports event or visits museums, art galleries, and public lectures, as confirmed by the research, there is a greater participation by men in "sports and physical activities" and by women In "arts and cultural activities." Then, too, there is a gendered nature to passive leisure, which affects the books, magazines, and film men and women read and view, as well as the hobbies and crafts they participate in. While Shaw notes that little research has examined these differences, these distinctions based on gender can already be seen in the way marketers target certain types of books, such as those on self-help and relationships to women, and those on sports and business to men . Similarly, films dealing with romance and relationships are targeted to women, and films featuring adventure and action to men.

Also, confirming what has been evident to the general public, in modern industrialized societies, men have generally had more time to participate in leisure activities, because of what sociologist Arlie Hochschild, who I studied with at UC Berkeley, calls the "second shift. " This is because working and married women have generally taken on most of the household and childcare chores at home, so they not only have participated in the paid work, but when they come home, they work again. Meanwhile, since they have been less engaged than women in the household, the men get to enjoy additional leisure time, thanks to their women partners.

However, these studies cited by Shaw about women having less leisure time were done in the 1980s and 1990s. In recent years, this distinction between the leisure time for men and women seems to be changing, according to the popular media, in that men are more importantly involved in splitting up the housework and parenting. This shift is even reflected in the popular media, where the men end up with the kids and learn to enjoy being dads, such as Once Fallen. At the same time, successful women workers are hiring nannies to do the housework and care for their kids and even hiring surrogates to birth them.

As for constraints, these differently affect the opportunities men and women have for leisure. For example, the 1980s and 1990s research cited has shown that women are more constrained than men because of household obligations and family commitments, and because they feel a social obligation due to the "ethic of care," where women may feel an obligation to care For others, so they feel less free to enjoy leisure for themselves. Then, too, women may feel constrained from participating in certain types of activities, because of their fear of violence (such as in boxing and wrestling) or their concern with their body image (such as in swimming), while men may resist participating in Activities that seem too feminine and threaten them masculinity (such as ballet).

When it comes to race and ethnicity, it is more complicated to measure either participation or constitutions, because of the problems in classifying people by race or ethnicity. These classification problems have occurred because of ethnic and racial diversity and multiculturalism, so the old census racial classifications are breaking down, as pointed out by Gramann and Allison. But those complications aside, much of the research has focused on the different ways that different ethnic and racial groups participate in outdoor recreation, and the results have indicated that Whites tend to participate more in these activities than minority group members. While one reason that many minority group members do not participate is due to their marginal position in society, wheree they have a lower income and can not afford to participate, have poor transportation, or fear discrimination, another factor may be cultural differences. Certainly, marginality could be a factor for those with limited incomes, when they have to pay substantial amounts to participate in leisure activities that are mostly participating in by Whites, such as going to dinners in expensive restaurants or paying entry fees for theater and other cultural Events.

But another key factor, apart from income and social class is that the members of racial and ethnic groups may have their own "culturally based value system, norms, and leisure socialization patterns," so they have different interests. An example of this can be seen in areas of ethnic concentration, such as Oakland, where there is a Chinatown in the downtown area, African-American areas in Western and East Oakland, and Latin-American areas in the Fruitvale district. In each area, there are different types of activities that appeal to those in the ethnic groups in the area, such as the dragon boat races of the Chinese, the Kwanza celebration of the African-Americans, and the Day of the Dead celebration of Mexican -Americans. Also, members of the different groups may like reading books and magazines as well as viewing films that feature their own racial or cultural group, whereas Whites are less likely to be interested in these culturally-based types of entertainment. As Gramann and Allison point out, such racially and ethnic based choices of leisure may occur because they are "expressions of culture" or they may be an indication of "selective acculturation". Then too, these culturally-based forms of leisure could be examples of "ethnic boundary maintenance," where individuals individuals chose to engage in certain activities to highlight their ethnic differences, such as when Native Americans have pow-wows around the country to celebrate their tribal Identities.

Reverse Phone Services That Use PayPal

As we all know, PayPal is one of the most secure payment forms on the internet and they provide you with a secure online transaction each and every time. Reverse phone services include this service so you never have to worry about people stealing your identify when you sign up for the service. With that said, here is some more information on why reverse phone services use secure payment forms and why you should too.

The main reason why you should always go though a secure site when signing up for a reverse cell service is due to the fact that your information is safe. When placing your credit card information, name, and e-mail address online without going through a secure site, you may be in a heap of trouble. This could lead to your identity being stolen or your credit card being swiped from someone far, far away.

The next reason why it is important to sign up for a reverse cell service with PayPal is because it makes life just a little bit easier. You don’t have to jump through loopholes or contact someone for support. It is a simple process that only takes a few minutes to complete.

The last reason why people should use PayPal is because they are reliable. ClickBank, the leader in digital downloads has teamed up with PayPal to allow you to have a secure transaction for any service in which you need.

So take the time to find a reverse service that includes PayPal and you will find the information you need today.